Upscaling micro-irrigation in the Indian states of Odisha and Assam: Recommendations based on field evidence
Food production in India is increasingly vulnerable to water scarcity risks, due to the growing demand for food, climate change and competition for scarce natural resources among competing sectors. Agriculture already accounts for more than 90% of the total freshwater withdrawals in India (FAO 2020). However, competing demands for water in the future may reduce the availability of freshwater for agriculture by up to 72% in 2025 and 65%–68% in 2050 (ADB 2013). Thus, there is an urgent need to enhance water resilience and adaptation to climate change to sustain Indian agriculture.